Bone fractures can be a complication of Type 2 diabetes. According to a report published in the journal Osteoporosis International in June 2018, metformin could have been better choice than insulin when the possibility of bone fraction is a concern.

Researchers at the Hospital Can Misses, and several other research facilities in Spain and the United Kingdom compared over 2,000 people who had been diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes and over 10,000 non-diabetic individuals …

  • the people with Type 2 diabetes using insulin had a 63 percent higher risk of bone fractures than the participants not taking insulin.
  • the people with diabetes treated with metformin plus a sulfonylurea also had a higher risk of fractures than those using metformin alone.

From the above results, the investigators concluded using insulin alone put patients at an increased risk of fractures. They suggest the fracture risk be taken into account when people with Type 2 diabetes and their doctor decide on the diabetes treatment.

Bones in people with Type 2 diabetes are as dense or denser than those in non-diabetic individuals but tend to be more fragile. Bones are living organs, continuously changing shape according to their needs. If more stress is placed on particular bones because, for instance, the diabetic has taken up weightlifting, then the bones involved may need to grow in certain places taking up most of the load. In Type 2 diabetes, this remodeling can be slowed down …

  • osteoclasts, which break down bone, do their job, but the osteoblasts, responsible for building up bone, do not always build as they should.
  • tiny blood vessels in the bones can also be compromised, preventing the bone from receiving the necessary oxygen and nutrients it needs for good health.

For good bone health, people need to get enough calcium, preferably from vegetable sources. Dairy products contain high amounts of protein, which interfere with calcium absorption. About 32 percent of the calcium in dairy products is absorbed, while 60 percent of the calcium in broccoli is.

The following are a few vegan sources of calcium …

  • broccoli – 180 mg per cup, cooked
  • kelp – 17 mg per 2 tablespoons (â €> cup)
  • fortified soy milk – 200 to 400 mg per cup
  • fortified orange juice – 300 mg per cup
  • tofu with calcium – 500 mg per 4 ounces
  • soybeans – 200 mg per cup
  • bok choy cage – 40 mg per cup
  • watercress – 41 mg per cup
  • mustard greens – 40 mg per cup
  • okra – 41 mg per cup
  • kale – 101 mg calcium per cup, chopped
  • collard greens – 50 mg per cup
  • leafy greens in general
  • legumes (beans) – 30 to 100 mg per cup, and
  • seeds.

The good news for everyone is many vegetables contain significant amounts of calcium.